IVF stands for in vitro fertilisation. IVF was originally devised to overcome infertility caused by blocked or absent fallopian tubes, but today IVF is used to treat many more reproductive problems, including irregular ovulation, low sperm count or motility, and unexplained infertility. In IVF fertilisation of eggs and embryo development occur outside the body of the woman, in a culture dish held in the controlled environment of an incubator.
First the woman’s ovaries are stımulated with the use of drugs to recruit and promote the growth of a suitable number of follicles each containing an egg. Follicular growth is monitored regularly by ultrasound during stimulation stage to decide on the right time to trigger the maturation of the eggs. Approximately 36 hours after taking the trigger injection the oocytes are collected in surgery by aspirating the follicles using an ultrasound guided aspiration needle. The aspirated follicular fluid from each follicle is checked in the laboratory and all collected eggs are placed in a culture dish and placed in an incubator until the time for insemination.